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[1.1]  WHO, “Antimicrobial resistance factsheet” 2016

[1.2]  Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. “Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human life? A critical review of published data.” 2004

​[1.3]  Public Health Reports “A Review of Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: Perspective, Policy and Potential. 2012

[1.4]  The Role of Poverty in Antimicrobial Resistance

[1.5] Silva LN, Zimmer KR et al. Plant Natural Products Targeting Bacterial Virulence Factors. Chem Rev. 2016;116(16):9162-9236

[1.6] Salam AM, Quave CL. Opportunities for plant natural products in infection control. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2018;45:189-194

[1.7] Radulovic NS, Blagojevic PD et al. Antimicrobial plant metabolites: structural diversity and mechanism of action. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(7):932-952

[1.8] Eg. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 16;109 Suppl 2:17281-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1202244109. Epub 2012 Oct 8. Early environments and the ecology of inflammation.McDade TW


[2.1]  Arslan GG, Eser I. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):58

[2.2]  Managing Travelers’ Diarrhea While Traveling Abroad

[2.3] Bull M, Plummer N. Part 1 The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease.  Integr Med (Encinitas). 2014 Dec; 13(6): 17–22.

[2.4] Ferreira CM et al. The central role of the gut microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases. J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:689492.

[2.5] Singh R et al. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. J Trans Med. 2017;15:73.

[2.6] Jernberg C et al. Long-term impacts of antibiotic exposure on the human intestinal microbiota. Microbiology (2010), 156, 3216–3223.

[2.7] Maseda D, Zackular JP et al Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Alter the Microbiota and Exacerbate Clostridium difficile Colitis while Dysregulating the Inflammatory Response. MBio.2019 Jan 8;10(1). pii: e02282-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02282-18.

[2.8] Plummer S et al. Effects of probiotics on the composition of the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic therapy. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 26(1):69-74 August 2005

[2.9] Leschid D. Probiotics as regulators of inflammation : A review. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(7):299-311

[2.10] Xie HY et al. Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 23;11.

[2.11] Barrons R, Tassone D. Use of Lactobacillus probiotics for bacterial genitourinary infections in women: a review. Clin Ther. 2008 Mar;30(3):453-68.

[2.12] Zuccotti G. Probiotics for prevention of atopic diseases in infants: systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2015 Nov;70(11):1356-71

[2.13] Garaiova et al.Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study. Eur J Cain Nutr. 2015 Mar; 69(3): 373–379.

[2.14] Hudson J et al. Probiotic use as prophylaxis for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a community hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2019 Jan 18 pii: S0196-6553(18)31181-7.

[2.15] Madden JA et al.Effect of probiotics on preventing disruption of the  intestinal microflora following antibiotictherapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Int Immunopharmacol.2005 Jun;5(6):1091-7.

[2.16] Guandalini S, Sansotta N. Probiotics in the Treatment of of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol.2019 Jan 11.

[2.17] Williams et al. Clinical Trial: A Multistrain Probiotic Preparation Significantly Reduces Intestinal Discomfort in a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. 2008.

[2.18] Bi, Luke et al.Exercise and gastrointestinal function and disease: an evidence-based review of risks and benefits.Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology , Volume 1 , Issue 5 , 345 - 355

[2.19] Canada's Food Guide

[2.20] Vermorken AJ et al. Bowel movement frequency, oxidative stress and disease prevention. Mol Clin Oncol. 2016 Oct;5(4):339-342. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

[2.21] Safety Tips for Handling and Preparing Common Foods

[2.22] Lederberg J: Infectious history. Science 2000, 288:287-293

[2.23] Blaser M, Atherton. J Helicobacter pylori persistence: biology and disease. J Clin Invest. 2004;113(3):321-333.

[2.24] Bach JF. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med. Sep 2002;347(12):911–920.

[2.25] M.G. Gareau, Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease, Springer, 2014

[2.26] Harrison OJ, Powrie FM. Regulatory T cells and immune tolerance in the intestine. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013;5(7):a018341. Published . doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a018341

[2.27] Conlon MA, Bird AR. The impact of diet and lifestyle on gut microbiota and human health. Nutrients. 2014;7(1):17-44. Published 2014 Dec 24. doi:10.3390/nu7010017

[2.28] Shridhar G, Rajendra N, Murigendra H, Shridevi P, Prasad M, et al. (2015) Modern Diet and its Impact on Human Health. J Nutr Food Sci 5:430. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000430

[2.29] Rogoveanu OC, Streba CT, Vere CC, Petrescu L, Trăistaru R. Superior digestive tract side effects after prolonged treatment with NSAIDs in patients with osteoarthritis. J Med Life. 2015;8(4):458-61.

[2.30] Handa O, Naito Y, Fukui A, Omatsu T, Yoshikawa T. The impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the small intestinal epithelium. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2013;54(1):2-6.

[2.31] Stephen A.M., Cummings J.H. Mechanism of action of dietary fiber in the human colon. Nature. 1980;284:283–284. doi: 10.1038/284283a0.

[2.32] Soto-Vaca A., Gutierrez A., Losso J.N., Xu Z., Finley J.W. Evolution of phenolic compounds from color and flavor problems to health benefits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012;60:6658–6677. doi: 10.1021/jf300861c.

[2.33] Kruis W, Forstmaier G, Scheurlen C, Stellaard F. Effect of diets low and high in refined sugars on gut transit, bile acid metabolism, and bacterial fermentation. Gut. 1991;32(4):367-71.

[2.34] Huxley R.R., Ansary-Moghaddam A., Clifton P., Czernichow S., Parr C.L., Woodward M. The impact of dietary and lifestyle risk factors on risk of colorectal cancer: A quantitative overview of the epidemiological evidence. Int. J. Cancer. 2009;125:171–180. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24343.

[2.35] Lutgendorff F., Akkermans L.M.A., Soderholm J.D. The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastrointestinal damage. Curr. Mol. Med. 2008;8:282–298. doi: 10.2174/156652408784533779.

[2.36] Clarke S.F., Murphy E.F., O’Sullivan O., Lucy A.J., Humphreys M., Hogan A., Hayes P., O’Reilly M., Jeffery I.B., Wood-Martin R., et al. Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity. Gut. 2014;63:1913–1920.

[2.37] Mahenthiralingam E et al 2009. Use of colony-based bacterial strain typing for tracking the fate of Lactobacillus strains during human consumption. BMC Microbiology 2009, 9:251 (doi 10.1186/1471-2180-9-251)

[2.38] Bayan L, Koulivand PH, Gorji A. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014;4(1):1-14.

[2.39] Imanshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine. Phytother Res. 2008;22:999–1012.

[2.40] Rafiq, Ragina et al. “Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Pelargonium capitatum × radens and Laurus nobilis L” Foods (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 5,2 28. 11 Apr. 2016, doi:10.3390/foods5020028

[2.41] Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: A Review of Its' Effects on Human Health. Foods. 2017;6(10):92. Published 2017 Oct 22. doi:10.3390/foods6100092

[2.42] Hanai H, Iida T, Takeuchi K, et al. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:1502–1506.

[2.43] Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011;73(3):255-61.

[2.44] Mashhadi NS, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Hariri M, Darvishi L, Mofid MR. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(Suppl 1):S36-42.

[2.45] Zaghlool SS, Shehata BA, Abo-Seif AA, Abd El-Latif HA. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015;6(2):421-8.

[2.46] Peterson CT, Sharma V, Uchitel S, et al. Prebiotic Potential of Herbal Medicines Used in Digestive Health and Disease. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(7):656-665.

[2.47] Ng SC, Lam YT, Tsoi KK, Chan FK, Sung JJ, Wu JC. Systematic review: the efficacy of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;38:854–863.

[2.48] R.R.W.J. van der Hulst. Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet. 1993 May 29;341(8857):1363-5.

[2.49] Treede I, Braun A, Sparla R, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of phosphatidylcholine. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(37):27155-64.

[2.50] Jonkers D, Stockbrügger R. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease. J R Soc Med. 2003;96(4):167-71.

[2.51] Looijer-van Langen MA, Dieleman LA. Prebiotics in chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15(3):454-62.

[2.52] Mugambi MN, Musekiwa A, Lombard M, Young T, Blaauw R. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review. Nutr J. 2012;11:81. Published 2012 Oct 4. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-81

[2.53] Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Aug;11(8):506-14.  Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebioticsconsensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Hill C1, Guarner F2, Reid G3, Gibson GR4, Merenstein DJ5, Pot B6, Morelli L7, Canani RB8, Flint HJ9, Salminen S10, Calder PC11, Sanders ME1

[2.54] BMC Med. 2016 Jun 2;14(1):82.  Probiotics and microbiota composition.  Sanders ME1

[2.55] Gut Microbes. 2018; 9(2): 102–103. PMID: 29053042  Paper incompletely describes evidence-based usage of probiotics   Mary Ellen Sandersa and  Jessica Younesb

[2.56] J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Jan;32(1):9-25. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14875. Epub 2017 Nov 24. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: A Review.  Barko PC1, McMichael MA1, Swanson KS1,2, Williams DA1

[2.57] Sivieri K, Bassan J et al. Gut microbiota and antimicrobial peptides. . Current Opin Food Sci. 2017;13:56-62 

[2.58] Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018 Sep 18. doi: 10.1007/s12602-018-9465-0. [Epub ahead of print]  Antimicrobial Peptides: the Achilles' Heel of Antibiotic Resistance?  Lewies A1,2, Du Plessis LH1, Wentzel JF3

[2.59] Acc Chem Res. 2019 Mar 4. doi: 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00624. [Epub ahead of print]  Very Short and Stable Lactoferricin-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides: Design Principles and Potential Uses.  Svendsen JSM1, Grant TM2, Rennison D2, Brimble MA2, Svenson J3


[3.1]  Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

[3.2]  The Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection

[3.3]  Dipsticks and diagnostic algorithms in urinary tract infection

[3.4]  Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups

[3.5]  D-mannose: a promising support for acute urinary tract infections in women. A pilot study.

[3.6]  D-mannose powder for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a randomized clinical trial.

[3.7]  The role of probiotics in women with recurrent urinary tract infections

[3.8]  Acupuncture in the prophylaxis of recurrent lower urinary tract infection in adult women.

[3.9]  Acupuncture Treatment in the Prevention of Uncomplicated Recurrent Lower Urinary Tract Infections in Adult Women

[3.10]  Acupuncture points used in the prophylaxis against recurrent uncomplicated cystitis, patterns identified & their possible relationship to physiological measurements.

[3.13]  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.1988;32(9):1370-1374

[3.14]  Natural extracts stimulate membrane-associated mechanisms of resistance in Gram-negative bacteria

[3.15]  Development of bacterial resistance to several biocides and effects on antibiotic susceptibility

[3.16] Reducing antibiotic use for uncomplicated urinary tract infection in general practice by treatment with uva-ursi

[3.17] Uva-ursi extract and ibuprofen as alternative treatments of adult female urinary tract infection (ATAFUTI)

[3.18] Intake of Caffeinated, Carbonated, or Citrus Beverage Types and Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men and Women

[3.19] Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli

[3.20] Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake in Premenopausal Women With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[3.21] Dietary factors protecting women from urinary tract infection

[3.22] Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

[3.23] Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

[3.24] Homeopathic medicine Cantharis modulates uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)-induced cystitis in susceptible mice

[3.25] Help for urinary tract infections

[3.26] The homeopathic guide in all disease of the urinary and sexual organs, including the derangements caused by onanism and sexual excesses

[3.27] Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

[3.28] Reducing antibiotic use for uncomplicated urinary tract infection in general practice by treatment with uva-ursi (REGATTA) - a double-blind, randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial

[3.29] Uva-ursi extract and ibuprofen as alternative treatments of adult female urinary tract infection (ATAFUTI): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

[3.30] Mechanisms underlying the diuretic effects of Tropaeolum majus L. extracts and its main component isoquercitrin

[3.31] A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a herbal medicinal product containing Tropaeoli majoris herba (Nasturtium) and Armoraciae rusticanae radix (Horseradish) for the prophylactic treatment of patients with chronically recurrent lower urinary tract infections

[3.32] Nasturtium (Indian cress, Tropaeolum majus nanum) dually blocks the COX and LOX pathway in primary human immune cells

[3.33] Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children


[4.1]  How does an infectious disease spread? HIV simulation

[4.2]  Clean hands protect against infection

[4.3]  Sage leaf (Salviae folium)

[4.4]  The Effects of Traditional Chinese Exercise in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis

[4.5]  Effect of Regular Yoga Practice on Respiratory Regulation and Exercise Performance

[4.6]  Yoga-based pulmonary rehabilitation for the management of dyspnea in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

[4.7]  Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality

[4.8]  Indoor Air Quality and Health

[4.9]  Air pollutants and early origins of respiratory diseases

[4.10]  Antibiotics Aren't Always the Answer

[4.11]  Respiratory Virus Detection and Clinical Diagnosis in Children Attending Day Care.

[4.12]  Clinical presentation and microbiological diagnosis in paediatric respiratory tract infection

[4.13]  The Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in the Diagnosis of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

[4.14]  Final Report Summary - RID-RTI (Rapid Identification of Respiratory Tract Infections)

[4.15]  The use of PCR in the surveillance and diagnosis of influenza

[4.16]  Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use vs a Standard Approach for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care

[4.17]  Antiviral effect of catechins in green tea on influenza virus.

[4.18]  Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers

[4.19]  Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections.

[4.20] Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

[4.21] How to boost your immune system

[4.22] The secret to better health — exercise

[4.23] Sleep and immune function

[4.24] Effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on immune function in older people

[4.25] Respiratory Rate and Pattern

[4.26] Anger, stress, dysregulation produces wear and tear on the lung

[4.27] The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General

[4.28] Peak flow test

[4.29] ZXYZ200817007.htm

[4.30] Improved antimicrobial effect of ginseng extract by heat transformation

[4.31] Warnke PH. Becker ST et al. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37(7):392-397

[4.32] Research project: HATRIC - Herbal Alternative Treatment (Pelargonium) for lower Respiratory tract Infections with Cough in adults

[4.33] Andrographis paniculata (Chuān Xīn Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children

[4.34] Effectiveness of cough etiquette maneuvers in disrupting the chain of transmission of infectious respiratory diseases

[4.35] Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections in health care

[4.36] Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection (MEPARI-2): A randomized controlled trial

[4.37] Evaluation of steam therapy in acute lower respiratory tract infections: a pilot study

[4.38] Efficacy of Steam Inhalation with Inhalant Capsules in Patients with Common Cold in a Rural Set Up

[4.39] Scientific Evidence-Based Effects of Hydrotherapy on Various Systems of the Body

[4.40] Evidence-Based Review of Hydrotherapy Studies on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

[4.41] Probiotics in human medicine

[4.42] Vitamin C and Immune Function

[4.43] Zinc in Human Health: Effect of Zinc on Immune Cells

[4.44] New Concepts in Nutraceuticals as Alternative for Pharmaceuticals

[4.45] A Review of Homeopathic Research in the Treatment of Respiratory Allergies

[4.46] Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints

[4.47] A pilot study on the efficacy of nasal rinsing during ablution in reducing acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) among male Hajj pilgrims


[5.1]  Two, A.M, Nakatsuji, T., Kotol, P.F. et al (2016). The Cutaneous Microbiome and Aspects of Skin Antimicrobial Defense System Resists Acute Treatment with Topical Skin Cleansers.  Journal of Investigative Dermatology.136. 1950-1954

[5.2]  Liu, Q-Q, Han, J. Zuo, G-Y, Wang, G-C, Tang, H-S. (2016). Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by Salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 131. 13-17.

[5.3]  Tayel et al. (2018). Bioactivity and application of plant seeds’ extracts to fight resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 63. 47-53.

[5.4]  Chao, S. Young, G., Oberg, C., Nakaoka, K. (2008). Inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by essential oils. Flavour & Fragrance Journal. 23. 444-449.

[5.5]  Dryden, M.S., Dailly, S. Crouch, M. (2004). A randomized, controlled trial of tea tree topical preparations versus a standard topical regimen for the clearance of MRSA colonisation. Journal of Hospital Infection. 56 (4). 283—286

[5.6]  Caelli, M., Porteous, J., Carson, C.F. et al (2000). Journal of Hospital Infection. 46. 236-237

[5.7]  Sherry, E. Warnke, P.H. (2004). Phytomedicine. 11. 95-97; Sherry, E., Boeck, H. Warnke, P.H. (2001). BMC Surgery. 1. 1

[5.8]  Carson, C.F., Hammer, K.A. & Riley, T.V. (2006). Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties. 

[5.9]  Nostro, A., Blanco, A.R., Cannatelli, M.A. et al. (2004). Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci to oregano essential oil, carvacrol and thymol. FEMS Microbiology Letters 230. 191-195.

[5.10]  Özkalp, B., Sevgi F. Özcan, M. Özcan M.M.  (2010)

[5.11]  Tiwari, R. Chakraborty, S. Dhama, K. (2013). Miracle of Herbs in Antibiotic Resistance Wounds and Skin Infections: Treasure of Nature – a Review/Perspect5ive. Pharma Science Monitor. 4. 214 - 248

[5.12]  Carvalho, C.C.C.R. Caramujo, M.J. (2008). Ancient Procedures for the High-Tech World: Health Benefits and Antimicrobial Compounds from the Mediterranean Empires.

[5.13]  Borges, A., Abreu, A.C. Dias, C. et al. (2016). New Perspectives on the Use of Phytochemicals as an Emergent Strategy to Control Bacterial Infections Including Biofilms. Molecules. 21. 1 – 41.

[5.14]  Piewngam et al. (2018). Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference. Nature.

[5.15]  Chanda, S. Vyas, B.R.M., Vaghasiya, Y., Patel, H. (2010). Global resistance trends and the potential impact of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its solutions. Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology Biotechnology.

[5.16]  A Comparison of the Anti-Staphylococcus aureus Activity of Extracts from Commonly Used Medicinal Plants

[5.17]  Oliva A, Costantini S et al. High Potency of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against Multi-Drug Resistance Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules. 2018, 23(10). pii: E2584. doi: 10.3390/molecules23102584.

[5.18]  Falci SP, Teixeira MA et al. Antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca sp. oil against clinical isolates of antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Cir Bras. 2015:30(6):401-406

[5.19]  Warnke PH. Becker ST et al. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37(7):392-397

[5.20]  Sharifi-Rad J, Hoseini Alfatemi S et al. Antimicrobial Synergic Effect of Allicin and Sliver Nanoparticles on Skin Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcuse aureus spp. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4(6):863-868

[5.21] Wound dressings


[5.22] Chemical and Mineralogical Characteristics Of French Green Clays Used For Healing


[5.23] Innate and adaptive immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus skin infections


[5.24] Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals


[5.25] Microbiome of affected and unaffected skin of patients with atopic dermatitis before and after emollient treatment


[5.26] In vitro antibacterial activity and in vivo efficacy of hydrated clays on Mycobacterium ulcerans growth


[5.27] Innate Immune Memory Contributes to Host Defense against Recurrent Skin and Skin Structure Infections


[5.28] The role of microbiota, and probiotics and prebiotics in skin health.


[5.29] Probiotics or pro-healers: the role of beneficial bacteria in tissue repair.


[5.30] Clinical and in vitro performance of an antibiofilm Hydrofiber wound dressing.


[5.31] The Cutaneous Microbiome and Wounds: New Molecular Targets to Promote Wound Healing


[5.32] The Effect of Aloe Vera Clinical Trials on Prevention and Healing of Skin Wound: A Systematic Review


[5.33] Benefit and harm of iodine in wound care: a systematic review


[5.34] The effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the expression of biofilm associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from wound infections in burn patients


[5.35] Antibiofilm Treatment for Onychomycosis and Chronic Fungal Infections


[5.36] Photoactivated Resveratrol Against Staphylococcus Aureus Infection in Mice


[5.37] Hypericin in the Light and in the Dark: Two Sides of the Same Coin


[5.38] Chemical and Mineralogical Characteristics Of French Green Clays Used For Healing

General Comments

[6.1] Oliva A, Costantini S et al. High Potency of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against Multi-Drug Resistance Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules. 2018, 23(10). pii: E2584. doi: 10.3390/molecules23102584.


[6.2] Falci SP, Teixeira MA et al. Antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca sp. oil against clinical isolates of antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Cir Bras. 2015:30(6):401-406


[6.3] Warnke PH. Becker ST et al. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37(7):392-397


[6.4] Rajkowski K, Kunicka-Styczynska A, Maroszynska M. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates. Microb Dru Resist. 2017;23(1):18-24


[6.5] Abdel Rahim KA, Ali Mohamed Am. Bactericidal and Antibiotic Synergistic Effect of Nanosilver Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015;8(11):e25867


[6.6] Cutler RR, Wilson P. Antibacterial activity of a new, stable, aqueous extract of allicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus areus. Br J Biomed Sci. 2004;61(2):71-74.


[6.7] Spaeth A, Graeler A, Maisch T, Plaetzer K. CureCuma-cationic curcuminoids with improved properties and enhanced antimicrobial photodynamic activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;159:423-440.


[6.8] Winter S, Tortik N, Kubin A, Krammer B, Plaetzer K. Back to the roots: photodynamic inactivation of bacteria based on water-soluble curcumin bound to polyvinylpyrrolidone as a photosensitizer. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 201312(10):1795-802


[6.9] Morrill K, May K, Leek D, et al. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity associated with ionic colloidal silver. J Altern Complement Med. 2013; 19(3):224-31.


[6.10] Kvitek L, Panacek A, Prucek R, et al. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver – nanosilver versus ionic silver. J of Physics. 304(1)


[6.11] Rai MK, Deshmukh SD, Ingle AP, Gade AK. Silver nanoparticles: the power nanoweapon against multidrug-resistant bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2012; 112(5):841-52.

[6.12] Sharifi-Rad J, Hoseini Alfatemi S et al. Antimicrobial Synergic Effect of Allicin and Sliver Nanoparticles on Skin Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcuse aureus spp. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4(6):863-868


[6.13] Kang HK, Kim HY, Cha JD. Synergisticc effects between silibinin and antibiotics on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens. Biotechnol J. 2011;6(11):1397-1408

[6.14] McMahon MAS, et al. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility in staphylococci habituated to sub-lethal concentrations of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2008; 47: 263–268


[6.15] Berdeio D, Cheuca B et al. Sub-Inhibitory Doses of Individual Constituents of Essential Oils Can Select for Staphylococcus aureus resistant strains. Molecules. 2019;24(1): pii: E170. doi: 10.3390/molecules24010170.

Yaun W, Seng ZJ et al. Stress Resistance Development and Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Adpated to Sublethal Thymol, Carvacrol, and trans-Cinnamaldehyde. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84(22):pii: e01616-18. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01616-18.


[6.16] Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tee tree) essential oil and the major monoterpene components terpinen-4-ol on the development of single- and multistep antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial susceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56(2):909-915


[6.17] Thomsen NA, Hammer KA et al. Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013;41(4):343-351

[6.18] El-Guendouz S, Aazza S et al. Moroccan Propolis: A Natural Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antibiofilm against Staphylococcus aureus with No Induction of Resistance after Continuous Exposure. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018; 2018;9758240

[6.19] Wolf AJ, Liu GY, Underhill DM. Inflammatory properties of antibiotic-treated bacterial J Leukocyte Biol. 2017; 101(1):127-134


[6.20] Silva LN, Zimmer KR et al. Plant Natural Products Targeting Bacterial Virulence Factors. Chem Rev. 2016;116(16):9162-9236

[6.21] Giuliano CA, Rybak MJ. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review. Pharmacotherapy. 2015;35(3):328-336


[6.22] Kim M, Weigand MR et al. Widely used benzalkonium chloride disinfectants can promote antibiotic resistance. Appl Enviro Micrbiol. 2018;pii: AEM.01201-18. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01201-18. [Epub ahead of print]


[7.1] Pathogens Transmitted by Food Contaminated by Infected Persons Who Handle Food, and Modes of Transmission of Such Pathogens

[7.2] Adkinson (2008) ''Middletons Allergies: Principles and Practice.'' (7. edition, Ed.) China: Mosby.

Antimicrobial Natural Health Products

[8.1] Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity Beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties​


[8.2] Research Article. A Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus subtilis RLID 12.1. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014, Article ID 968487, 10 pages.


[8.3] The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.  Volume 2016, Article ID 2752739, 9 pages.

[8.4] In Vitro Synergistic Effect of Psidium guineense (Swartz) in Combination with Antimicrobial Agents against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Psidium guineense is a species of guava. Common names include Brazilian guava, Castilian guava, sour guava, Guinea guava. The Scientific World Journal. Volume 2012, Article ID 158237, 7 pages.

[8.5] Lu M, et al. Bactericidal Property of Oregano Oil Against Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018. (9):2329

Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR) Committee Members

Dr. Iva Lloyd, ND WNF President (Canada)

Dr. Adele Pelteret (South Africa)

Erika Brajnik (Slovenia)

Dr. Jillian Stansbury (USA)

Dr. Kimberley Ramberan, ND (Atrium Innovations)

Luisa Nuernberg Losso, Nat., MPH (Brazil) 

Dr. Paul Saunders, ND (Canada)

Poorna Menon (Bastyr student-volunteer)

Dr. Rahim Moledina, ND (Canada)

Sarah Brenchley, Naturopath (New Zealand)

Tina Hausser, Heilpraktiker (Spain)

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