General Comments

The following include general recommendations / comments on naturopathic approach to AMR:

  • Natural health products might have synergistic effects with other antimicrobials against antimicrobial resistant strains of different pathogens. [6.12] [6.13]

  • There are reports of antimicrobial resistance to a few Natural Health products such as Melaleuca alternifolia (i.e. Tea Tree Oil (TTO0), especially if the concentration used is too low. (reference the 3 references below). This is relatively rare, and can be avoided when treatments are dosed and applied correctly (reference the 4th and 5th points below).  As with all medical interventions, it is important to work with a naturopath / naturopathic doctor or trained professional in natural health products. [6.14] [6.15] [6.16] [6.17]

  • The potential for developing antimicrobial resistance has been tested with a number of common antimicrobial natural health products.  There is supportive evidence that natural health products are safe with continuous use and that they do not cause resistance. [6.18]


  • There is concern that some bacteria treated with antibiotics leads to chronic inflammation associated with non-communicable diseases. This means that antibiotics don’t just have short term, or even intermediate term, effects but potentially long term effects. Many natural health products, especially mixtures of botanical medicines, have unique and multiple actions. i.e. they don’t just target the bacterial cell membrane like many synthetic antibiotics do. These multitarget modes of action makes it less likely that resistance will develop to them. [6.19] [6.20]

  • Keep in mind that antimicrobial resistance is not just from inappropriate use of antibiotics. There are numerous reports of resistance developing due to the inappropriate use of household chemicals, including Triclosan (a very common antimicrobial added to hand soaps, some toothpastes etc. ) and benzalkonium chloride disinfectants.  It is recommended that you choose household cleaning products and personal care products that are chemial-free. [6.21] [6.22]